The Essene 364 Day Calendar
by Phil Lenbury
The general misconception is that the calendar had a week or weeks added in order to realign the 364 day calendar, the term for this is intercalation. Yet this most certainly did not occur, the calendar ran through the seasons with each year having exactly and only 364 days. Yet their calendar is the most accurate calendar known to man, more accurate than the Egyptian, Greek, Chinese, Mayan or even our modern Gegorian Calendar.
The actual length of the solar year in the 1st century BCE was 365.24232 days long, now it is 365.242198 days long.
In 4Q319 of the Dead Sea Scrolls was found what has been called an Otot cycle which was exactly a Jubilee of their six year calendar, in total 294 years (49x6). The puzzle has been why such a long cycle was needed? Well the Otot cycle is 294 x 364 days long or 107,016 days in total. It is the time taken for the calendar to exactly realign in a similar way to the Egyptian 365 day year which realigned after 1461 years.
In 293 solar years there are also 107,016 days, its accuracy in realignment is staggering as its to within 100mS a year. No calendar before or since has managed to realign so precisely. We can see from the Qumran 6 year (364 x 6) Priestly calendar in 4Q321 that a Full Moon occurs on the 1st of the 1st month in years 1 and 4 and has exactly 74 lunar cycles in the 6 years (364x6)2184 days which means their calculation for a lunar cycle was 29.51351 days.
The calendar was clearly designed to reflect the calendar at the start of creation or more accurately the fourth day when the Sun and Moon were created.
The calendar in respect of the Full and
New Moons as well as the solar year were not from the 1st or 2nd century BCE but from the
creation. In Enoch which was found in multiple copies at Qumran the author is clear about
the calendar "it is perfect" and needs or should have any intercalation, indeed
he tells us that 8 years is 2912 days so no intercalation took place or was needed. That
they knew the lunar and solar cycles did not accord with the calendar is obvious from
Enoch where the author blames the Moon and seasons coming at the wrong times are not due
to the calendar but the sin of man. It is clear that the calendar was not to be altered to
fit the time of sin, but when sin ended the calendar and the heavenly